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Children born outside marriage have become more common, and in some countries, the majority. During the first half of the 20th century, unmarried women in some Western countries were coerced by authorities to give their children up for adoption.

This was especially the case in Australia, through the forced adoptions in Australia , with most of these adoptions taking place between the s and the s.

In , Julia Gillard , then Prime Minister of Australia, offered a national apology to those affected by the forced adoptions.

Some married couples choose not to have children. Others are unable to have children because of infertility or other factors preventing conception or the bearing of children.

In some cultures, marriage imposes an obligation on women to bear children. In northern Ghana , for example, payment of bridewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals.

Religions develop in specific geographic and social milieux. The man said, "This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called 'woman, ' for she was taken out of man.

So they are no longer two, but one. Therefore what God has joined together, let man not separate.

Modern Christianity bases its views on marriage upon the teachings of Jesus and the Paul the Apostle. A couple could exchange consent anywhere, anytime.

Decrees on marriage of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent twenty-fourth session of made the validity of marriage dependent on the wedding occurring in the presence of a priest and two witnesses.

The Christian Church performed marriages in the narthex of the church prior to the 16th century, when the emphasis was on the marital contract and betrothal.

Subsequently, the ceremony moved inside the sacristy of the church. Christians often [ quantify ] marry for religious reasons, ranging from following the biblical injunction for a "man to leave his father and mother and cleave to his wife, and the two shall become one", [Gen.

Catholics , Eastern Orthodox , as well as many Anglicans and Methodists , consider marriage termed holy matrimony to be an expression of divine grace , [] termed a sacrament and mystery in the first two Christian traditions.

In Western ritual , the ministers of the sacrament are the spouses themselves, with a bishop , priest , or deacon merely witnessing the union on behalf of the Church and blessing it.

In Eastern ritual churches , the bishop or priest functions as the actual minister of the Sacred Mystery; Eastern Orthodox deacons may not perform marriages.

Western Christians commonly refer to marriage as a vocation , while Eastern Christians consider it an ordination and a martyrdom , though the theological emphases indicated by the various names are not excluded by the teachings of either tradition.

The sacrament of marriage is indicative of the relationship between Christ and the Church. The Roman Catholic tradition of the 12th and 13th centuries defined marriage as a sacrament ordained by God, [] signifying the mystical marriage of Christ to his Church.

The matrimonial covenant, by which a man and a woman establish between themselves a partnership of the whole of life, is by its nature ordered toward the good of the spouses and the procreation and education of offspring; this covenant between baptized persons has been raised by Christ the Lord to the dignity of a sacrament.

For Catholic and Methodist Christians, the mutual love between husband and wife becomes an image of the eternal love with which God loves humankind.

Sacramental marriage confers a perpetual and exclusive bond between the spouses. By its nature, the institution of marriage and conjugal love is ordered to the procreation and upbringing of offspring.

Marriage creates rights and duties in the Church between the spouses and towards their children: "[e]ntering marriage with the intention of never having children is a grave wrong and more than likely grounds for an annulment".

Civilly remarried persons who civilly divorced a living and lawful spouse are not separated from the Church, but they cannot receive Eucharistic Communion.

Divorce and remarriage , while generally not encouraged, are regarded differently by each Christian denomination. Most Protestant Churches allow persons to marry again after a divorce, while other require an annulment.

The Eastern Orthodox Church allows divorce for a limited number of reasons, and in theory, but usually not in practice, requires that a marriage after divorce be celebrated with a penitential overtone.

With respect to marriage between a Christian and a pagan, the early Church "sometimes took a more lenient view, invoking the so-called Pauline privilege of permissible separation 1 Cor.

The Catholic Church adheres to the proscription of Jesus in Matthew , 6 that married spouses who have consummated their marriage "are no longer two, but one flesh.

Therefore, what God has joined together, no human being must separate. Specifically, Canon declares that "the essential properties of marriage are unity and indissolubility ; in [C]hristian marriage they acquire a distinctive firmness by reason of the sacrament.

However, the Church has the authority to annul a presumed "marriage" by declaring it to have been invalid from the beginning, i.

For Protestant denominations, the purposes of marriage include intimate companionship, rearing children, and mutual support for both spouses to fulfill their life callings.

Most Reformed Christians did not regard marriage to the status of a sacrament "because they did not regard matrimony as a necessary means of grace for salvation"; nevertheless it is considered a covenant between spouses before God.

Since the 16th century, five competing models have shaped marriage in the Western tradition, as described by John Witte, Jr. Islam also commends marriage, with the age of marriage being whenever the individuals feel ready, financially and emotionally.

In Islam, polygyny is allowed while polyandry is not, with the specific limitation that a man can have no more than four legal wives at any one time and an unlimited number of female slaves as concubines who may have rights similar wives, with the exception of not being free unless the man has children with them, [ citation needed ] with the requirement that the man is able and willing to partition his time and wealth equally among the respective wives and concubines this practice of concubinage, as in Judaism, is not applicable in contemporary times and has been deemed by scholars as invalid due to shifts in views about the role of slavery in the world.

For a Muslim wedding to take place, the bridegroom and the guardian of the bride wali must both agree on the marriage.

Should the guardian disagree on the marriage, it may not legally take place. If the wali of the girl her father or paternal grandfather, he has the right to force her into marriage even against her proclaimed will, if it is her first marriage.

A guardian who is allowed to force the bride into marriage is called wali mujbir. From an Islamic Sharia law perspective, the minimum requirements and responsibilities in a Muslim marriage are that the groom provide living expenses housing, clothing, food, maintenance to the bride, and in return, the bride's main responsibility is raising children to be proper Muslims.

All other rights and responsibilities are to be decided between the husband and wife, and may even be included as stipulations in the marriage contract before the marriage actually takes place, so long as they do not go against the minimum requirements of the marriage.

In Sunni Islam , marriage must take place in the presence of at least two reliable witnesses, with the consent of the guardian of the bride and the consent of the groom.

Following the marriage, the couple may consummate the marriage. To create an ' urf marriage, it is sufficient that a man and a woman indicate an intention to marry each other and recite the requisite words in front of a suitable Muslim.

The wedding party usually follows but can be held days, or months later, whenever the couple and their families want to; however, there can be no concealment of the marriage as it is regarded as public notification due to the requirement of witnesses.

Following the marriage, they may consummate their marriage. In Judaism , marriage is based on the laws of the Torah and is a contractual bond between spouses in which the spouses dedicate to be exclusive to one another.

Kabbalistically , marriage is understood to mean that the spouses are merging into a single soul. This is why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified.

Polygyny , or men having multiple wives at once, is one of the most common marital arrangements represented in the Hebrew Bible; [] another is that of concubinage pilegesh which was often arranged by a man and a woman who generally enjoyed the same rights as a full legal wife other means of concubinage can be seen in Judges where mass marriage by abduction was practiced as a form of punishment on transgressors.

Among ancient Hebrews, marriage was a domestic affair and not a religious ceremony; the participation of a priest or rabbi was not required.

Betrothal erusin , which refers to the time that this binding contract is made, is distinct from marriage itself nissu'in , with the time between these events varying substantially.

Since a wife was regarded as property, her husband was originally free to divorce her for any reason, at any time. A divorced couple were permitted to get back together, unless the wife had married someone else after her divorce.

Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations. Old Hindu literature in Sanskrit gives many different types of marriages and their categorization ranging from "Gandharva Vivaha" instant marriage by mutual consent of participants only, without any need for even a single third person as witness to normal present day marriages, to "Rakshasa Vivaha" "demoniac" marriage, performed by abduction of one participant by the other participant, usually, but not always, with the help of other persons.

In the Indian subcontinent , arranged marriages , the spouse's parents or an older family member choose the partner, are still predominant in comparison with so-called love marriages until nowadays.

The Buddhist view of marriage considers marriage a secular affair and thus not a sacrament. Buddhists are expected to follow the civil laws regarding marriage laid out by their respective governments.

Gautama Buddha, being a kshatriya was required by Shakyan tradition to pass a series of tests to prove himself as a warrior, before he was allowed to marry.

In a Sikh marriage, the couple walks around the Guru Granth Sahib holy book four times, and a holy man recites from it in the kirtan style.

The ceremony is known as ' Anand Karaj ' and represents the holy union of two souls united as one. Wiccan marriages are commonly known as handfastings.

Although handfastings vary for each Wiccan they often involve honoring Wiccan gods. Sex is considered a pious and sacred activity.

Marriages are correlated with better outcomes for the couple and their children, including higher income for men, better health and lower mortality.

Part of these effects is due to the fact that those with better expectations get married more often. According to a systematic review on research literature, a significant part of the effect seems to be due to a true causal effect.

The reason may be that marriages make particularly men become more future-oriented and take an economic and other responsibility of the family.

The studies eliminate the effect of selectivity in numerous ways. However, much of the research is of low quality in this sense.

On the other hand, the causal effect might be even higher if money, working skills and parenting practises are endogenous. Married men have less drug abuse and alcohol use and are more often at home during nights.

Marriage, like other close relationships, exerts considerable influence on health. Social ties provide people with a sense of identity, purpose, belonging, and support.

The health-protective effect of marriage is stronger for men than women. Women's health is more strongly impacted than men's by marital conflict or satisfaction, such that unhappily married women do not enjoy better health relative to their single counterparts.

In most societies, the death of one of the partners terminates the marriage, and in monogamous societies, this allows the other partner to remarry, though sometimes after a waiting or mourning period.

In some societies, a marriage can be annulled , when an authority declares that a marriage never happened. Jurisdictions often have provisions for void marriages or voidable marriages.

A marriage may also be terminated through divorce. Countries that have relatively recently legalized divorce are Italy , Portugal , Brazil , Spain , Argentina , Paraguay , Colombia , Ireland , Chile and Malta As of , the Philippines and the Vatican City are the only jurisdictions which do not allow divorce this is currently under discussion in Philippines.

Laws concerning divorce and the ease with which a divorce can be obtained vary widely around the world. After a divorce or an annulment, the people concerned are free to remarry or marry.

A statutory right of two married partners to mutually consent to divorce was enacted in western nations in the midth century.

In the United States, no-fault divorce was first enacted in California in and the final state to legalize it was New York in The history of marriage is often considered under History of the family or legal history.

Many cultures have legends concerning the origins of marriage. The way in which a marriage is conducted and its rules and ramifications have changed over time, as has the institution itself, depending on the culture or demographic of the time.

The first recorded evidence of marriage ceremonies uniting a man and a woman dates back to approximately BC, in ancient Mesopotamia.

According to ancient Hebrew tradition, a wife was seen as being property of high value and was, therefore, usually, carefully looked after.

The husband, too, is indirectly implied to have some responsibilities to his wife. The Covenant Code orders "If he take him another; her food, her clothing, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish or lessen ".

And the term diminish, which means to lessen, shows the man must treat her as if he was not married to another. As a polygynous society, the Israelites did not have any laws that imposed marital fidelity on men.

The literary prophets indicate that adultery was a frequent occurrence, despite their strong protests against it, [] [] [] [] and these legal strictnesses.

In ancient Greece , no specific civil ceremony was required for the creation of a heterosexual marriage — only mutual agreement and the fact that the couple must regard each other as husband and wife accordingly.

It has been suggested that these ages made sense for the Greeks because men were generally done with military service or financially established by their late 20s, and marrying a teenage girl ensured ample time for her to bear children, as life expectancies were significantly lower.

There were several types of marriages in ancient Roman society. The traditional "conventional" form called conventio in manum required a ceremony with witnesses and was also dissolved with a ceremony.

She now was subject to the authority of her husband. In this arrangement, the wife remained a member of her original family; she stayed under the authority of her father, kept her family rights of inheritance with her old family and did not gain any with the new family.

Among ancient Germanic tribes, the bride and groom were roughly the same age and generally older than their Roman counterparts, at least according to Tacitus :.

The youths partake late of the pleasures of love, and hence pass the age of puberty unexhausted: nor are the virgins hurried into marriage; the same maturity, the same full growth is required: the sexes unite equally matched and robust, and the children inherit the vigor of their parents.

Where Aristotle had set the prime of life at 37 years for men and 18 for women, the Visigothic Code of law in the 7th century placed the prime of life at 20 years for both men and women, after which both presumably married.

Tacitus states that ancient Germanic brides were on average about 20 and were roughly the same age as their husbands. In addition, Anglo-Saxon women, like those of other Germanic tribes, are marked as women from the age of 12 and older, based on archaeological finds, implying that the age of marriage coincided with puberty.

From the early Christian era 30 to CE , marriage was thought of as primarily a private matter, with no uniform religious or other ceremony being required.

In 12th-century Europe, women took the surname of their husbands and starting in the second half of the 16th century parental consent along with the church's consent was required for marriage.

With few local exceptions, until , Christian marriages in Europe were by mutual consent, declaration of intention to marry and upon the subsequent physical union of the parties.

In a wedding took place in Zufia, Navarre , between Diego de Zufia and Mari-Miguel following the custom as it was in the realm since the Middle Ages, but the man denounced the marriage on the grounds that its validity was conditioned to "riding" her " si te cabalgo, lo cual dixo de bascuence The tribunal of the kingdom rejected the husband's claim, validating the wedding, but the husband appealed to the tribunal in Zaragoza , and this institution annulled the marriage.

In the Council of Trent , twenty-fourth session, required that a valid marriage must be performed by a priest before two witnesses.

One of the functions of churches from the Middle Ages was to register marriages, which was not obligatory. There was no state involvement in marriage and personal status, with these issues being adjudicated in ecclesiastical courts.

During the Middle Ages marriages were arranged, sometimes as early as birth, and these early pledges to marry were often used to ensure treaties between different royal families, nobles, and heirs of fiefdoms.

The church resisted these imposed unions, and increased the number of causes for nullification of these arrangements.

In Medieval Western Europe , later marriage and higher rates of definitive celibacy the so-called "European marriage pattern" helped to constrain patriarchy at its most extreme level.

For example, Medieval England saw marriage age as variable depending on economic circumstances, with couples delaying marriage until the early twenties when times were bad and falling to the late teens after the Black Death , when there were labor shortages; [] by appearances, marriage of adolescents was not the norm in England.

The average age of marriage for most of Northwestern Europe from to was around 25 years of age ; [] [] [] as the Church dictated that both parties had to be at least 21 years of age to marry without the consent of their parents, the bride and groom were roughly the same age, with most brides in their early twenties and most grooms two or three years older, [] and a substantial number of women married for the first time in their thirties and forties, particularly in urban areas, [] with the average age at first marriage rising and falling as circumstances dictated.

In better times, more people could afford to marry earlier and thus fertility rose and conversely marriages were delayed or forgone when times were bad, thus restricting family size; [] after the Black Death , the greater availability of profitable jobs allowed more people to marry young and have more children, [] but the stabilization of the population in the 16th century meant fewer job opportunities and thus more people delaying marriages.

The age of marriage was not absolute, however, as child marriages occurred throughout the Middle Ages and later, with just some of them including:.

As part of the Protestant Reformation , the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state, reflecting Martin Luther 's view that marriage was a "worldly thing".

In England, under the Anglican Church, marriage by consent and cohabitation was valid until the passage of Lord Hardwicke's Act in This act instituted certain requirements for marriage, including the performance of a religious ceremony observed by witnesses.

As part of the Counter-Reformation , in the Council of Trent decreed that a Roman Catholic marriage would be recognized only if the marriage ceremony was officiated by a priest with two witnesses.

The Council also authorized a Catechism , issued in , which defined marriage as "The conjugal union of man and woman, contracted between two qualified persons, which obliges them to live together throughout life.

In the early modern period , John Calvin and his Protestant colleagues reformulated Christian marriage by enacting the Marriage Ordinance of Geneva, which imposed "The dual requirements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage" [] for recognition.

In England and Wales , Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act required a formal ceremony of marriage, thereby curtailing the practice of Fleet Marriage , an irregular or a clandestine marriage.

From the s until the Marriage Act of as many as , clandestine marriages were performed at Fleet Prison alone. The Act did not apply to Jewish marriages or those of Quakers, whose marriages continued to be governed by their own customs.

In England and Wales, since , civil marriages have been recognized as a legal alternative to church marriages under the Marriage Act In Germany, civil marriages were recognized in This law permitted a declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administration, when both spouses affirm their will to marry, to constitute a legally recognized valid and effective marriage, and allowed an optional private clerical marriage ceremony.

In contemporary English common law , a marriage is a voluntary contract by a man and a woman, in which by agreement they choose to become husband and wife.

The mythological origin of Chinese marriage is a story about Nüwa and Fu Xi who invented proper marriage procedures after becoming married.

In ancient Chinese society, people of the same surname are supposed to consult with their family trees prior to marriage to reduce the potential risk of unintentional incest.

Marrying one's maternal relatives was generally not thought of as incest. Families sometimes intermarried from one generation to another.

Over time, Chinese people became more geographically mobile. Individuals remained members of their biological families. When a couple died, the husband and the wife were buried separately in the respective clan's graveyard.

In a maternal marriage, a male would become a son-in-law who lived in the wife's home. The New Marriage Law of radically changed Chinese marriage traditions, enforcing monogamy , equality of men and women, and choice in marriage; arranged marriages were the most common type of marriage in China until then.

Starting October , it became legal to marry or divorce without authorization from the couple's work units. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Marriage disambiguation. Culturally recognised union between people. For other uses, see Married disambiguation and Matrimony disambiguation.

Basic concepts. Case studies. Chambri Mosuo. Major theorists. Morgan Stephen O. Murray Michelle Rosaldo David M. Schneider Marilyn Strathern.

Related articles. Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship. Polygamy Polyandry Polygyny. Cicisbeo Concubinage Courtesan Mistress. Breakup Separation Annulment Divorce Widowhood.

Emotions and feelings. Main article: Types of marriages. Main article: Monogamy. Main article: Polygamy.

Main article: Polygyny. See also: Concubinage. Main article: Child marriage. Main articles: Same-sex marriage and History of same-sex unions.

See also: Cohabitation and Common-law marriage. Main article: Hypergamy. Further information: Prohibited degree of kinship , Cousin marriage , Affinity canon law , and Avunculate marriage.

Main article: Arranged marriage. Main article: Forced marriage. See also: Economics of marriage and Family economics. Main articles: Bride price and Dower.

Main article: Bride price. Marriage and other equivalent or similar unions and status. Validity of marriages.

Dissolution of marriages. Parenting coordinator U. Other issues. Private international law. Family and criminal code or criminal law. Child abuse Domestic violence Incest Child selling Parental child abduction.

Main article: Marriage law. See also: Matrimonial regime and Rights and responsibilities of marriages in the United States. Main article: Cousin marriage.

See also: Coefficient of relationship. No laws passed. Repealed before Repealed between and Overturned on 12 June Main article: Interracial marriage.

Marriage open to same-sex couples rings: individual cases. Legislation or binding domestic court ruling establishing same-sex marriage, but marriage is not yet provided for.

Same-sex marriage recognized when performed in certain other jurisdictions, and accorded greater rights than local same-sex unions if any.

Civil unions or domestic partnerships. Limited legal recognition registered cohabitation. Local certification without legal force. Limited recognition of marriage performed in certain other jurisdictions residency rights for spouses.

Country subject to an international court ruling to recognize same-sex marriage. Same-sex unions not legally recognized.

Main article: Same-sex marriage. Polygamy is legal only for Muslims. Polygamy is legal. Polygamy is legal in some regions Indonesia. Polygamy is illegal, but practice is not criminalised.

Polygamy is illegal and practice criminalised. Legal status unknown. In Nigeria and South Africa, polygamous marriages under customary law and for Muslims are legally recognized.

In Mauritius, polygamous unions have no legal recognition. Main article: Legality of polygamy. Main article: Wedding.

See also: Common-law marriage. Main article: Civil union. Main article: Criticism of marriage. See also: Chastity and Adultery.

Main article: Marital rape. Further information: Legitimacy family law. Further information: Religion and divorce. Main article: Christian views on marriage.

Main article: Religious arguments about same-sex marriage. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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Main article: Islamic marital jurisprudence. Main article: Jewish views on marriage. Main article: Marriage in Hinduism. Main article: Buddhist view of marriage.

Main article: Marriage and health. Main articles: Divorce and Divorce law by country. See also: Marriage in ancient Rome and Ancient Greek wedding customs.

Further information: History of the family and Royal intermarriage. Main article: Chinese marriage. Marriages entered into in these jurisdictions are fully recognized by law throughout Mexico.

In other states, same-sex marriage is available by court injunction amparo. Ecuador became the first country in which the international ruling was implemented, following a national ruling by the Constitutional Court of Ecuador on 12 June The other countries that are signatories to the American Convention on Human Rights and recognize the binding jurisdiction of the court, and which do not already have same-sex marriage nationally, are Barbados , Bolivia , Chile , Dominican Republic , El Salvador , Guatemala , Haiti , Honduras , Mexico, Nicaragua , Panama , Paraguay , Peru and Suriname.

Dominica , Grenada and Jamaica , which are also signatories to the convention, have not agreed to the court's blanket jurisdiction.

Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge 13th ed. Cengage Learning. Retrieved on 5 September Current Anthropology. Archived from the original PDF on 24 May Retrieved 6 April Same-sex Marriage and the Constitution , p.

History of Human Marriage Kessinger Publishing. The Future of Marriage in Western Civilisation. Books for Libraries Press.

Royal Anthropological Institute. Kathleen Nuer female-female marriage is done to keep property within a family that has no sons.

It is not a form of lesbianism. Marriage, Family and Residence. New York: Natural History Press. Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tijdschrift voor Sociale Wetenschappen. Oxford: Berg. Polygamy: a cross-cultural analysis. J Mol Evol. Bibcode : JMolE..

Cross-Cultural Research. Polygamy: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Human Nature. Archived from the original on 23 September The Dynamics of polyandry: kinship, domesticity, and population on the Tibetan border.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 7 October Children and Youth in History. Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 28 August Tahirih Justice Center.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 December Retrieved 27 May BBC World Service. Gale Group. Retrieved 18 October Strong character made his word law among both men and women with whom he associated.

Though his wrath was dreaded by men as well as women, he was loved by all children, to whom he was ever kind. Virginia Law Review.

Insomniac Press. IV, pp. Journal of Family History. Reed Business Information, Inc. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 5 December Deconstructing sexuality in the Middle East: challenges and discourses.

Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry. Journal of Marriage and the Family. Archived from the original PDF on 1 February Retrieved 25 October The Boston Globe.

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Your name. Country Afghanistan Albania Algeria Am. Botswana Bouvet Isl. The occurrence of extramarital sex by women is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 23 cultures, "occasional" in 9 cultures, and "uncommon" in 15 cultures.

Many of the world's major religions look with disfavor on sexual relations outside marriage. Adultery is considered in many jurisdictions to be a crime and grounds for divorce.

In some countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, [] Afghanistan, [] [] Iran, [] Kuwait, [] Maldives, [] Morocco, [] Oman, [] Mauritania, [] United Arab Emirates, [] [] Sudan, [] Yemen, [] any form of sexual activity outside marriage is illegal.

In some parts of the world, women and girls accused of having sexual relations outside marriage are at risk of becoming victims of honor killings committed by their families.

In Pakistan , after the Balochistan honour killings in which five women were killed by tribesmen of the Umrani Tribe of Balochistan , Pakistani Federal Minister for Postal Services Israr Ullah Zehri defended the practice; he said: [] "These are centuries-old traditions, and I will continue to defend them.

Only those who indulge in immoral acts should be afraid. An issue that is a serious concern regarding marriage and which has been the object of international scrutiny is that of sexual violence within marriage.

Throughout much of the history, in most cultures, sex in marriage was considered a 'right', that could be taken by force often by a man from a woman , if 'denied'.

As the concept of human rights started to develop in the 20th century, and with the arrival of second-wave feminism , such views have become less widely held.

The legal and social concept of marital rape has developed in most industrialized countries in the mid- to late 20th century; in many other parts of the world it is not recognized as a form of abuse, socially or legally.

Several countries in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia made marital rape illegal before , and other countries in Western Europe and the English-speaking Western world outlawed it in the s and s.

In England and Wales , marital rape was made illegal in Although marital rape is being increasingly criminalized in developing countries too, cultural, religious, and traditional ideologies about "conjugal rights" remain very strong in many parts of the world; and even in many countries that have adequate laws against rape in marriage these laws are rarely enforced.

Apart from the issue of rape committed against one's spouse, marriage is, in many parts of the world, closely connected with other forms of sexual violence: in some places, like Morocco , unmarried girls and women who are raped are often forced by their families to marry their rapist.

Because being the victim of rape and losing virginity carry extreme social stigma, and the victims are deemed to have their "reputation" tarnished, a marriage with the rapist is arranged.

This is claimed to be in the advantage of both the victim — who does not remain unmarried and doesn't lose social status — and of the rapist, who avoids punishment.

In , after a Moroccan year-old girl committed suicide after having been forced by her family to marry her rapist and enduring further abuse by the rapist after they married, there have been protests from activists against this practice which is common in Morocco.

In some societies, the very high social and religious importance of marital fidelity, especially female fidelity, has as result the criminalization of adultery, often with harsh penalties such as stoning or flogging ; as well as leniency towards punishment of violence related to infidelity such as honor killings.

A Joint Statement by the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice states that "Adultery as a criminal offence violates women's human rights".

The laws surrounding heterosexual marriage in many countries have come under international scrutiny because they contradict international standards of human rights ; institutionalize violence against women , child marriage and forced marriage ; require the permission of a husband for his wife to work in a paid job, sign legal documents, file criminal charges against someone, sue in civil court etc.

Such things were legal even in many Western countries until recently: for instance, in France , married women obtained the right to work without their husband's permission in , [] [] [] and in West Germany women obtained this right in by comparison women in East Germany had many more rights.

Throughout history, and still today in many countries, laws have provided for extenuating circumstances , partial or complete defenses, for men who killed their wives due to adultery, with such acts often being seen as crimes of passion and being covered by legal defenses such as provocation or defense of family honor.

While international law and conventions recognize the need for consent for entering a marriage — namely that people cannot be forced to get married against their will — the right to obtain a divorce is not recognized; therefore holding a person in a marriage against their will if such person has consented to entering in it is not considered a violation of human rights, with the issue of divorce being left at the appreciation of individual states.

The European Court of Human Rights has repeatedly ruled that under the European Convention on Human Rights there is neither a right to apply to divorce, nor a right to obtain the divorce if applied for it; in , in Babiarz v.

Poland , the Court ruled that Poland was entitled to deny a divorce because the grounds for divorce were not met, even if the marriage in question was acknowledged both by Polish courts and by the ECHR as being a legal fiction involving a long-term separation where the husband lived with another woman with whom he had an year-old child.

In the EU, the last country to allow divorce was Malta , in Around the world, the only countries to forbid divorce are Philippines and Vatican City , [] although in practice in many countries which use a fault-based divorce system obtaining a divorce is very difficult.

The ability to divorce, in law and practice, has been and continues to be a controversial issue in many countries, and public discourse involves different ideologies such as feminism, social conservatism, religious interpretations.

In recent years, the customs of dowry and bride price have received international criticism for inciting conflicts between families and clans; contributing to violence against women ; promoting materialism; increasing property crimes where men steal goods such as cattle in order to be able to pay the bride price ; and making it difficult for poor people to marry.

African women's rights campaigners advocate the abolishing of bride price, which they argue is based on the idea that women are a form of property which can be bought.

Historically, and still in many countries, children born outside marriage suffered severe social stigma and discrimination. In England and Wales, such children were known as bastards and whoresons.

There are significant differences between world regions in regard to the social and legal position of non-marital births, ranging from being fully accepted and uncontroversial to being severely stigmatized and discriminated.

The European Convention on the Legal Status of Children Born out of Wedlock protects the rights of children born to unmarried parents.

While in most Western countries legal inequalities between children born inside and outside marriage have largely been abolished, this is not the case in some parts of the world.

The legal status of an unmarried father differs greatly from country to country. Without voluntary formal recognition of the child by the father, in most cases there is a need of due process of law in order to establish paternity.

In some countries however, unmarried cohabitation of a couple for a specific period of time does create a presumption of paternity similar to that of formal marriage.

This is the case in Australia. A special situation arises when a married woman has a child by a man other than her husband.

Some countries, such as Israel , refuse to accept a legal challenge of paternity in such a circumstance, in order to avoid the stigmatization of the child see Mamzer , a concept under Jewish law.

In , the European Court of Human Rights ruled in favor of a German man who had fathered twins with a married woman, granting him right of contact with the twins, despite the fact that the mother and her husband had forbidden him to see the children.

The steps that an unmarried father must take in order to obtain rights to his child vary by country.

In some countries such as the UK — since in England and Wales, in Scotland, and in Northern Ireland it is sufficient for the father to be listed on the birth certificate for him to have parental rights; [] in other countries, such as Ireland, simply being listed on the birth certificate does not offer any rights, additional legal steps must be taken if the mother agrees, the parents can both sign a "statutory declaration", but if the mother does not agree, the father has to apply to court.

Children born outside marriage have become more common, and in some countries, the majority. During the first half of the 20th century, unmarried women in some Western countries were coerced by authorities to give their children up for adoption.

This was especially the case in Australia, through the forced adoptions in Australia , with most of these adoptions taking place between the s and the s.

In , Julia Gillard , then Prime Minister of Australia, offered a national apology to those affected by the forced adoptions.

Some married couples choose not to have children. Others are unable to have children because of infertility or other factors preventing conception or the bearing of children.

In some cultures, marriage imposes an obligation on women to bear children. In northern Ghana , for example, payment of bridewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals.

Religions develop in specific geographic and social milieux. The man said, "This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called 'woman, ' for she was taken out of man.

So they are no longer two, but one. Therefore what God has joined together, let man not separate. Modern Christianity bases its views on marriage upon the teachings of Jesus and the Paul the Apostle.

A couple could exchange consent anywhere, anytime. Decrees on marriage of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent twenty-fourth session of made the validity of marriage dependent on the wedding occurring in the presence of a priest and two witnesses.

The Christian Church performed marriages in the narthex of the church prior to the 16th century, when the emphasis was on the marital contract and betrothal.

Subsequently, the ceremony moved inside the sacristy of the church. Christians often [ quantify ] marry for religious reasons, ranging from following the biblical injunction for a "man to leave his father and mother and cleave to his wife, and the two shall become one", [Gen.

Catholics , Eastern Orthodox , as well as many Anglicans and Methodists , consider marriage termed holy matrimony to be an expression of divine grace , [] termed a sacrament and mystery in the first two Christian traditions.

In Western ritual , the ministers of the sacrament are the spouses themselves, with a bishop , priest , or deacon merely witnessing the union on behalf of the Church and blessing it.

In Eastern ritual churches , the bishop or priest functions as the actual minister of the Sacred Mystery; Eastern Orthodox deacons may not perform marriages.

Western Christians commonly refer to marriage as a vocation , while Eastern Christians consider it an ordination and a martyrdom , though the theological emphases indicated by the various names are not excluded by the teachings of either tradition.

The sacrament of marriage is indicative of the relationship between Christ and the Church. The Roman Catholic tradition of the 12th and 13th centuries defined marriage as a sacrament ordained by God, [] signifying the mystical marriage of Christ to his Church.

The matrimonial covenant, by which a man and a woman establish between themselves a partnership of the whole of life, is by its nature ordered toward the good of the spouses and the procreation and education of offspring; this covenant between baptized persons has been raised by Christ the Lord to the dignity of a sacrament.

For Catholic and Methodist Christians, the mutual love between husband and wife becomes an image of the eternal love with which God loves humankind.

Sacramental marriage confers a perpetual and exclusive bond between the spouses. By its nature, the institution of marriage and conjugal love is ordered to the procreation and upbringing of offspring.

Marriage creates rights and duties in the Church between the spouses and towards their children: "[e]ntering marriage with the intention of never having children is a grave wrong and more than likely grounds for an annulment".

Civilly remarried persons who civilly divorced a living and lawful spouse are not separated from the Church, but they cannot receive Eucharistic Communion.

Divorce and remarriage , while generally not encouraged, are regarded differently by each Christian denomination.

Most Protestant Churches allow persons to marry again after a divorce, while other require an annulment. The Eastern Orthodox Church allows divorce for a limited number of reasons, and in theory, but usually not in practice, requires that a marriage after divorce be celebrated with a penitential overtone.

With respect to marriage between a Christian and a pagan, the early Church "sometimes took a more lenient view, invoking the so-called Pauline privilege of permissible separation 1 Cor.

The Catholic Church adheres to the proscription of Jesus in Matthew , 6 that married spouses who have consummated their marriage "are no longer two, but one flesh.

Therefore, what God has joined together, no human being must separate. Specifically, Canon declares that "the essential properties of marriage are unity and indissolubility ; in [C]hristian marriage they acquire a distinctive firmness by reason of the sacrament.

However, the Church has the authority to annul a presumed "marriage" by declaring it to have been invalid from the beginning, i.

For Protestant denominations, the purposes of marriage include intimate companionship, rearing children, and mutual support for both spouses to fulfill their life callings.

Most Reformed Christians did not regard marriage to the status of a sacrament "because they did not regard matrimony as a necessary means of grace for salvation"; nevertheless it is considered a covenant between spouses before God.

Since the 16th century, five competing models have shaped marriage in the Western tradition, as described by John Witte, Jr. Islam also commends marriage, with the age of marriage being whenever the individuals feel ready, financially and emotionally.

In Islam, polygyny is allowed while polyandry is not, with the specific limitation that a man can have no more than four legal wives at any one time and an unlimited number of female slaves as concubines who may have rights similar wives, with the exception of not being free unless the man has children with them, [ citation needed ] with the requirement that the man is able and willing to partition his time and wealth equally among the respective wives and concubines this practice of concubinage, as in Judaism, is not applicable in contemporary times and has been deemed by scholars as invalid due to shifts in views about the role of slavery in the world.

For a Muslim wedding to take place, the bridegroom and the guardian of the bride wali must both agree on the marriage. Should the guardian disagree on the marriage, it may not legally take place.

If the wali of the girl her father or paternal grandfather, he has the right to force her into marriage even against her proclaimed will, if it is her first marriage.

A guardian who is allowed to force the bride into marriage is called wali mujbir. From an Islamic Sharia law perspective, the minimum requirements and responsibilities in a Muslim marriage are that the groom provide living expenses housing, clothing, food, maintenance to the bride, and in return, the bride's main responsibility is raising children to be proper Muslims.

All other rights and responsibilities are to be decided between the husband and wife, and may even be included as stipulations in the marriage contract before the marriage actually takes place, so long as they do not go against the minimum requirements of the marriage.

In Sunni Islam , marriage must take place in the presence of at least two reliable witnesses, with the consent of the guardian of the bride and the consent of the groom.

Following the marriage, the couple may consummate the marriage. To create an ' urf marriage, it is sufficient that a man and a woman indicate an intention to marry each other and recite the requisite words in front of a suitable Muslim.

The wedding party usually follows but can be held days, or months later, whenever the couple and their families want to; however, there can be no concealment of the marriage as it is regarded as public notification due to the requirement of witnesses.

Following the marriage, they may consummate their marriage. In Judaism , marriage is based on the laws of the Torah and is a contractual bond between spouses in which the spouses dedicate to be exclusive to one another.

Kabbalistically , marriage is understood to mean that the spouses are merging into a single soul. This is why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified.

Polygyny , or men having multiple wives at once, is one of the most common marital arrangements represented in the Hebrew Bible; [] another is that of concubinage pilegesh which was often arranged by a man and a woman who generally enjoyed the same rights as a full legal wife other means of concubinage can be seen in Judges where mass marriage by abduction was practiced as a form of punishment on transgressors.

Among ancient Hebrews, marriage was a domestic affair and not a religious ceremony; the participation of a priest or rabbi was not required.

Betrothal erusin , which refers to the time that this binding contract is made, is distinct from marriage itself nissu'in , with the time between these events varying substantially.

Since a wife was regarded as property, her husband was originally free to divorce her for any reason, at any time. A divorced couple were permitted to get back together, unless the wife had married someone else after her divorce.

Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations. Old Hindu literature in Sanskrit gives many different types of marriages and their categorization ranging from "Gandharva Vivaha" instant marriage by mutual consent of participants only, without any need for even a single third person as witness to normal present day marriages, to "Rakshasa Vivaha" "demoniac" marriage, performed by abduction of one participant by the other participant, usually, but not always, with the help of other persons.

In the Indian subcontinent , arranged marriages , the spouse's parents or an older family member choose the partner, are still predominant in comparison with so-called love marriages until nowadays.

The Buddhist view of marriage considers marriage a secular affair and thus not a sacrament. Buddhists are expected to follow the civil laws regarding marriage laid out by their respective governments.

Gautama Buddha, being a kshatriya was required by Shakyan tradition to pass a series of tests to prove himself as a warrior, before he was allowed to marry.

In a Sikh marriage, the couple walks around the Guru Granth Sahib holy book four times, and a holy man recites from it in the kirtan style.

The ceremony is known as ' Anand Karaj ' and represents the holy union of two souls united as one. Wiccan marriages are commonly known as handfastings.

Although handfastings vary for each Wiccan they often involve honoring Wiccan gods. Sex is considered a pious and sacred activity.

Marriages are correlated with better outcomes for the couple and their children, including higher income for men, better health and lower mortality.

Part of these effects is due to the fact that those with better expectations get married more often. According to a systematic review on research literature, a significant part of the effect seems to be due to a true causal effect.

The reason may be that marriages make particularly men become more future-oriented and take an economic and other responsibility of the family.

The studies eliminate the effect of selectivity in numerous ways. However, much of the research is of low quality in this sense.

On the other hand, the causal effect might be even higher if money, working skills and parenting practises are endogenous.

Married men have less drug abuse and alcohol use and are more often at home during nights. Marriage, like other close relationships, exerts considerable influence on health.

Social ties provide people with a sense of identity, purpose, belonging, and support. The health-protective effect of marriage is stronger for men than women.

Women's health is more strongly impacted than men's by marital conflict or satisfaction, such that unhappily married women do not enjoy better health relative to their single counterparts.

In most societies, the death of one of the partners terminates the marriage, and in monogamous societies, this allows the other partner to remarry, though sometimes after a waiting or mourning period.

In some societies, a marriage can be annulled , when an authority declares that a marriage never happened. Jurisdictions often have provisions for void marriages or voidable marriages.

A marriage may also be terminated through divorce. Countries that have relatively recently legalized divorce are Italy , Portugal , Brazil , Spain , Argentina , Paraguay , Colombia , Ireland , Chile and Malta As of , the Philippines and the Vatican City are the only jurisdictions which do not allow divorce this is currently under discussion in Philippines.

Laws concerning divorce and the ease with which a divorce can be obtained vary widely around the world. After a divorce or an annulment, the people concerned are free to remarry or marry.

A statutory right of two married partners to mutually consent to divorce was enacted in western nations in the midth century.

In the United States, no-fault divorce was first enacted in California in and the final state to legalize it was New York in The history of marriage is often considered under History of the family or legal history.

Many cultures have legends concerning the origins of marriage. The way in which a marriage is conducted and its rules and ramifications have changed over time, as has the institution itself, depending on the culture or demographic of the time.

The first recorded evidence of marriage ceremonies uniting a man and a woman dates back to approximately BC, in ancient Mesopotamia.

According to ancient Hebrew tradition, a wife was seen as being property of high value and was, therefore, usually, carefully looked after.

The husband, too, is indirectly implied to have some responsibilities to his wife. The Covenant Code orders "If he take him another; her food, her clothing, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish or lessen ".

And the term diminish, which means to lessen, shows the man must treat her as if he was not married to another. As a polygynous society, the Israelites did not have any laws that imposed marital fidelity on men.

The literary prophets indicate that adultery was a frequent occurrence, despite their strong protests against it, [] [] [] [] and these legal strictnesses.

In ancient Greece , no specific civil ceremony was required for the creation of a heterosexual marriage — only mutual agreement and the fact that the couple must regard each other as husband and wife accordingly.

It has been suggested that these ages made sense for the Greeks because men were generally done with military service or financially established by their late 20s, and marrying a teenage girl ensured ample time for her to bear children, as life expectancies were significantly lower.

There were several types of marriages in ancient Roman society. The traditional "conventional" form called conventio in manum required a ceremony with witnesses and was also dissolved with a ceremony.

She now was subject to the authority of her husband. In this arrangement, the wife remained a member of her original family; she stayed under the authority of her father, kept her family rights of inheritance with her old family and did not gain any with the new family.

Among ancient Germanic tribes, the bride and groom were roughly the same age and generally older than their Roman counterparts, at least according to Tacitus :.

The youths partake late of the pleasures of love, and hence pass the age of puberty unexhausted: nor are the virgins hurried into marriage; the same maturity, the same full growth is required: the sexes unite equally matched and robust, and the children inherit the vigor of their parents.

Where Aristotle had set the prime of life at 37 years for men and 18 for women, the Visigothic Code of law in the 7th century placed the prime of life at 20 years for both men and women, after which both presumably married.

Tacitus states that ancient Germanic brides were on average about 20 and were roughly the same age as their husbands.

In addition, Anglo-Saxon women, like those of other Germanic tribes, are marked as women from the age of 12 and older, based on archaeological finds, implying that the age of marriage coincided with puberty.

From the early Christian era 30 to CE , marriage was thought of as primarily a private matter, with no uniform religious or other ceremony being required.

In 12th-century Europe, women took the surname of their husbands and starting in the second half of the 16th century parental consent along with the church's consent was required for marriage.

With few local exceptions, until , Christian marriages in Europe were by mutual consent, declaration of intention to marry and upon the subsequent physical union of the parties.

In a wedding took place in Zufia, Navarre , between Diego de Zufia and Mari-Miguel following the custom as it was in the realm since the Middle Ages, but the man denounced the marriage on the grounds that its validity was conditioned to "riding" her " si te cabalgo, lo cual dixo de bascuence The tribunal of the kingdom rejected the husband's claim, validating the wedding, but the husband appealed to the tribunal in Zaragoza , and this institution annulled the marriage.

In the Council of Trent , twenty-fourth session, required that a valid marriage must be performed by a priest before two witnesses.

One of the functions of churches from the Middle Ages was to register marriages, which was not obligatory. There was no state involvement in marriage and personal status, with these issues being adjudicated in ecclesiastical courts.

During the Middle Ages marriages were arranged, sometimes as early as birth, and these early pledges to marry were often used to ensure treaties between different royal families, nobles, and heirs of fiefdoms.

The church resisted these imposed unions, and increased the number of causes for nullification of these arrangements. In Medieval Western Europe , later marriage and higher rates of definitive celibacy the so-called "European marriage pattern" helped to constrain patriarchy at its most extreme level.

For example, Medieval England saw marriage age as variable depending on economic circumstances, with couples delaying marriage until the early twenties when times were bad and falling to the late teens after the Black Death , when there were labor shortages; [] by appearances, marriage of adolescents was not the norm in England.

The average age of marriage for most of Northwestern Europe from to was around 25 years of age ; [] [] [] as the Church dictated that both parties had to be at least 21 years of age to marry without the consent of their parents, the bride and groom were roughly the same age, with most brides in their early twenties and most grooms two or three years older, [] and a substantial number of women married for the first time in their thirties and forties, particularly in urban areas, [] with the average age at first marriage rising and falling as circumstances dictated.

In better times, more people could afford to marry earlier and thus fertility rose and conversely marriages were delayed or forgone when times were bad, thus restricting family size; [] after the Black Death , the greater availability of profitable jobs allowed more people to marry young and have more children, [] but the stabilization of the population in the 16th century meant fewer job opportunities and thus more people delaying marriages.

The age of marriage was not absolute, however, as child marriages occurred throughout the Middle Ages and later, with just some of them including:.

As part of the Protestant Reformation , the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state, reflecting Martin Luther 's view that marriage was a "worldly thing".

In England, under the Anglican Church, marriage by consent and cohabitation was valid until the passage of Lord Hardwicke's Act in This act instituted certain requirements for marriage, including the performance of a religious ceremony observed by witnesses.

As part of the Counter-Reformation , in the Council of Trent decreed that a Roman Catholic marriage would be recognized only if the marriage ceremony was officiated by a priest with two witnesses.

The Council also authorized a Catechism , issued in , which defined marriage as "The conjugal union of man and woman, contracted between two qualified persons, which obliges them to live together throughout life.

In the early modern period , John Calvin and his Protestant colleagues reformulated Christian marriage by enacting the Marriage Ordinance of Geneva, which imposed "The dual requirements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage" [] for recognition.

In England and Wales , Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act required a formal ceremony of marriage, thereby curtailing the practice of Fleet Marriage , an irregular or a clandestine marriage.

From the s until the Marriage Act of as many as , clandestine marriages were performed at Fleet Prison alone. The Act did not apply to Jewish marriages or those of Quakers, whose marriages continued to be governed by their own customs.

In England and Wales, since , civil marriages have been recognized as a legal alternative to church marriages under the Marriage Act In Germany, civil marriages were recognized in This law permitted a declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administration, when both spouses affirm their will to marry, to constitute a legally recognized valid and effective marriage, and allowed an optional private clerical marriage ceremony.

In contemporary English common law , a marriage is a voluntary contract by a man and a woman, in which by agreement they choose to become husband and wife.

The mythological origin of Chinese marriage is a story about Nüwa and Fu Xi who invented proper marriage procedures after becoming married.

In ancient Chinese society, people of the same surname are supposed to consult with their family trees prior to marriage to reduce the potential risk of unintentional incest.

Marrying one's maternal relatives was generally not thought of as incest. Families sometimes intermarried from one generation to another. Over time, Chinese people became more geographically mobile.

Individuals remained members of their biological families. When a couple died, the husband and the wife were buried separately in the respective clan's graveyard.

In a maternal marriage, a male would become a son-in-law who lived in the wife's home. The New Marriage Law of radically changed Chinese marriage traditions, enforcing monogamy , equality of men and women, and choice in marriage; arranged marriages were the most common type of marriage in China until then.

Starting October , it became legal to marry or divorce without authorization from the couple's work units. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Marriage disambiguation. Culturally recognised union between people. For other uses, see Married disambiguation and Matrimony disambiguation.

Basic concepts. Case studies. Chambri Mosuo. Major theorists. Morgan Stephen O. Murray Michelle Rosaldo David M. Schneider Marilyn Strathern.

Related articles. Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship. Polygamy Polyandry Polygyny. Cicisbeo Concubinage Courtesan Mistress. Breakup Separation Annulment Divorce Widowhood.

Emotions and feelings. Main article: Types of marriages. Main article: Monogamy. Main article: Polygamy. Main article: Polygyny. See also: Concubinage.

Main article: Child marriage. Main articles: Same-sex marriage and History of same-sex unions. See also: Cohabitation and Common-law marriage.

Main article: Hypergamy. Further information: Prohibited degree of kinship , Cousin marriage , Affinity canon law , and Avunculate marriage.

Main article: Arranged marriage. Main article: Forced marriage. See also: Economics of marriage and Family economics. Main articles: Bride price and Dower.

Main article: Bride price. Marriage and other equivalent or similar unions and status. Validity of marriages. Dissolution of marriages.

Parenting coordinator U. Other issues. Private international law. Family and criminal code or criminal law. Child abuse Domestic violence Incest Child selling Parental child abduction.

Main article: Marriage law. See also: Matrimonial regime and Rights and responsibilities of marriages in the United States. Main article: Cousin marriage.

See also: Coefficient of relationship. No laws passed. Repealed before Repealed between and Overturned on 12 June Main article: Interracial marriage.

Marriage open to same-sex couples rings: individual cases. Legislation or binding domestic court ruling establishing same-sex marriage, but marriage is not yet provided for.

Same-sex marriage recognized when performed in certain other jurisdictions, and accorded greater rights than local same-sex unions if any.

Civil unions or domestic partnerships. Limited legal recognition registered cohabitation. Local certification without legal force. Limited recognition of marriage performed in certain other jurisdictions residency rights for spouses.

Country subject to an international court ruling to recognize same-sex marriage. Same-sex unions not legally recognized. Main article: Same-sex marriage.

Polygamy is legal only for Muslims. Polygamy is legal. Polygamy is legal in some regions Indonesia. Polygamy is illegal, but practice is not criminalised.

Polygamy is illegal and practice criminalised. Legal status unknown. In Nigeria and South Africa, polygamous marriages under customary law and for Muslims are legally recognized.

In Mauritius, polygamous unions have no legal recognition. Main article: Legality of polygamy. Main article: Wedding. See also: Common-law marriage.

Main article: Civil union. Main article: Criticism of marriage. See also: Chastity and Adultery. Main article: Marital rape. Further information: Legitimacy family law.

Further information: Religion and divorce. Main article: Christian views on marriage. Main article: Religious arguments about same-sex marriage.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Islamic marital jurisprudence. Main article: Jewish views on marriage.

Main article: Marriage in Hinduism. Main article: Buddhist view of marriage. Main article: Marriage and health. Main articles: Divorce and Divorce law by country.

See also: Marriage in ancient Rome and Ancient Greek wedding customs. Further information: History of the family and Royal intermarriage.

Main article: Chinese marriage. Marriages entered into in these jurisdictions are fully recognized by law throughout Mexico. In other states, same-sex marriage is available by court injunction amparo.

Ecuador became the first country in which the international ruling was implemented, following a national ruling by the Constitutional Court of Ecuador on 12 June The other countries that are signatories to the American Convention on Human Rights and recognize the binding jurisdiction of the court, and which do not already have same-sex marriage nationally, are Barbados , Bolivia , Chile , Dominican Republic , El Salvador , Guatemala , Haiti , Honduras , Mexico, Nicaragua , Panama , Paraguay , Peru and Suriname.

Dominica , Grenada and Jamaica , which are also signatories to the convention, have not agreed to the court's blanket jurisdiction.

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Royal Anthropological Institute. Kathleen Nuer female-female marriage is done to keep property within a family that has no sons.

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